Based on research, we identified key principles that teachers with English learner students in their classrooms should know. These principles are “big ideas” or concepts about second language acquisition and the academic challenges English learners face.
These two principles apply to math teachers. See additional principles that apply to all teachers as well as teachers in other subject areas, including language arts, social studies, and science.
Principle 1: Mathematics has its own language and representational system, and English learners struggle to understand math concepts in this language.
Mathematics has its own language that includes distinct terminology, syntax, and symbols. It uses some words (for example, “root,” or “set”) differently than they are used in standard, conversational English. It also phrases problems and solutions in a content‐ specific way that can be confusing for students learning English.
- Provide explicit instruction on how to read and use mathematical terms, syntax, and symbols
- Use concrete materials, which help develop mathematical understanding when linked to the concepts they represent
Principle 2: Mathematic word problems are particularly challenging for English learners.
Applying math generally means reading a word problem and figuring out the underlying mathematical principles before solving it. While the words used might seem simple, they are part of complex phrases that are particularly challenging to those still learning English. A single misunderstanding can lead students to a logical but incorrect solution. Even when English learners know the math, they may struggle with the way a question is framed.
- Provide opportunities for English learners to explain their strategies for reaching solutions